LESSON 7: Imperfect Indicative Active

Formation of the Imperfect Active Indicative

66. In the secondary tenses (50) of the indicative, the verb receives an AUGMENT (i.e. increase) at the beginning.

67. Augment is of two kinds:

1. Syllabic augment, which prefixes ε to verbs beginning with a consonant, as λύω, imperfect ἔ-λῡον, I was loosing.

2. Temporal augment, which lengthens the first syllable of verbs beginning with a vowel or diphthong, as ἄγω, imperfect ἦγον, I was leading. When augmented, α and ε become η; ι, ο, υ become ῑ, ω, ῡ; αι and ᾳ become ῃ; οι becomes ῳ.

α. ἔχω irregularly has the imperfect εἶχον.

68. The imperfect indicative represents an action as going on in past time, as ἔλῡον, I was loosing or I loosed.

Paradigms for Imperfect Indicative Active Verbs.


λύω (Imperfect Active Indicative)
First Person Singularἔλῡον
Second Person Singularἔλῡες
Third Person Singularἔλῡε
Second Person Dualἐλύετον
Third Person Dualἐλῡέτην
First Person Pluralἐλύομεν
Second Person Pluralἐλύετε
Third Person Pluralἔλῡον
βουλεύω (Imperfect Active Indicative)
First Person Singularἐβούλευον
Second Person Singularἐβούλευες
Third Person Singularἐβούλευε
Second Person Dualἐβουλεύετον
Third Person Dualἐβουλευέτην
First Person Pluralἐβουλεύομεν
Second Person Pluralἐβουλεύετε
Third Person Pluralἐβούλευον
πέμπω (Imperfect Active Indicative)
First Person Singularἔπεμπον
Second Person Singularἔπεμπες
Third Person Singularἔπεμπε
Second Person Dualἐπέμπετον
Third Person Dualἐπεμπέτην
First Person Pluralἐπέμπομεν
Second Person Pluralἐπέμπετε
Third Person Pluralἔπεμπον
ἁρπάζω (Imperfect Active Indicative)
First Person Singularἥρπαζον
Second Person Singularἥρπαζες
Third Person Singularἥρπαζε
Second Person Dualἡρπάζετον
Third Person Dualἡρπαζέτην
First Person Pluralἡρπάζομεν
Second Person Pluralἡρπάζετε
Third Person Pluralἥρπαζον

70. Verbs have recessive accent (53). But, under the general laws, the accent sometimes shifts (19), as ἔλῡον, ἐλύομεν, etc., sometimes changes (21), as εἶχον, I had, εἴχομεν, we had.


Review the meanings of all the words given in the vocabularies of Lessons III.-VI.


1. ἐλύετε.
2. ἦγον.
3. εἴχετε.
4. ἔλῡον.
5. ἦγες.
6. εἶχε.
7. ἐβούλευες.
8. ἔπεμπε.
9. ἡρπάζομεν.
10. ἐβουλεύομεν.


1. ἡ οἰκίᾱ θύρᾱς καλὰς εἶχε.
2. τὴν φυλακὴν ἔπεμπεν1 εἰς τὴν κώμην.
3. ἐν ταῖς κώμαις καλὰς εἶχεν οἰκίᾱς.
4. ἥρπαζες τὰς σκηνάς;
5. ἐκ τῆς οἰκίᾱς οὐκ ἦγες τὴν φυλακήν.
6. οὐχ ἡρπάζομεν τὰς μῑκρὰς κώμᾱς.
7. ἁμάξᾱς ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ εἴχετε.
8. ἐπὶ τὴν θάλατταν ἦγον τὴν Ἑλληνικὴν φυλακήν.
9. μαχαίρᾱς καὶ σφενδόνᾱς ἐπὶ τῆς ἁμάξης ἦγεν.1
10. φυλακὴν Ἑλληνικὴν ἐπέμπομεν εἰς τὴν ἀγοράν.

NOTE.—1 For ν movable, see 17.