LESSON LX: Present System of Verbs. Indirect Discourse.

The Present System of Verbs

552. In the previous lessons the verb has been developed by moods. It will now be developed by Tense Systems.

553. The following tense systems have been presented:

1. Present system, including the present and imperfect tenses in all the voices. Tense suffix ο/ε, tense stem λῡ ο/ε. Thus, λύω, ἔ-λῡο-ν, λύο-μαι, ἐ-λῡό-μην. cf. 138, 147, 177.

2. Future system, including the future active and middle. Tense suffix σ ο/ε, tense stem λῡσ ο/ε. Thus, λύσω, λύσο-μαι. cf. 139, 177.

3. First aorist system, including the first aorist active and middle. Tense suffix σα, tense stem λῡσα. Thus, ἔ-λῡσά, ἐ-λῡσά-μην. cf. 148, 184.

4. First perfect system, including the first perfect and first pluperfect active. Tense suffix κα (first pluperfect κε), tense stem λελυκα (first pluperfect λελυκε). Thus, λέλυκα, ἐ-λελύκη. cf. 140, 149.

5. Perfect middle system, including the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect middle and passive. Tense suffix none (in the future perfect σ ο/ε), tense stem λελυ (future perfect λελῡσ ο/ε). Thus, λέλυ-μαι, ἐ-λελύ-μην, λελύσο-μαι. cf. 185, 186.

6. First passive system, including the first aorist and first future passive. Tense suffix θε, lengthened to θη in the indicative (first future passive θησ ο/ε), tense stem λυθε, λυθη (first future passive λυθησ ο/ε). Thus, ἐ-λύθη-ν, λυθήσο-μαι. cf. 195, 198.

554. The three remaining tense systems have also been briefly considered, the second aorist (91), second perfect (114, 115), and second passive (197). In the following lessons they will receive fuller treatment.

555. Review the present system of λύω in 765 in the reference grammar, and be sure you know the moods in order, down the columns, first in the active, then in the middle and passive.

556. The Synopsis of any system of a verb consists of the first form in each tense in each mood of that system, arranged according to voices.

Thus, the synopsis of the present system of λύω in the active is, λύω, ἔλῡον, λύω, λύοιμι, λῦε, λύειν, λύων.

Indirect Quotations and Questions

557. A direct quotation or question gives the exact words of the original speaker or writer. In an indirect quotation or question the original words conform to the construction of the sentence in which they are quoted.

558. Indirect quotations may be introduced by ὅτι or ὡς, that, with a finite verb, or by the infinitive (469); sometimes by the participle.

559. Indirect questions follow the same principles as indirect quotations with ὅτι and ὡς, in regard to their moods and tenses.

560. 1. γράφω ἐπιστολήν, I am writing a letter; λέγει ὅτι (or ὡς) γράφει ἐπιστολήν, he says that he is writing a letter.

2. τί βούλεσθε; what do you want? ἐρωτᾷ τί (or ὅ τι) βούλεσθε, he asks what you want.

In these examples a simple sentence is quoted indirectly. This involves in the first example a change in the person of the verb of the quoted sentence. In the second example there is no such change in person; whether it occurs or not depends on the connexion, as in English. It involves also the use of ὅτι or ὡς, that, to introduce the indirect quotation, and may involve a change of the interrogative pronoun τί to the general relative ὅ τι in the indirect question. There is no change in either of these examples of mood or tense.


ἀπορέω, ἀπορήσω, etc., (cf. ἄπορος)be in doubt or wnat, be at a loss.
ἀσφαλῶς (cf. ἀσφαλής)adv., safely, securely.
δέχομαι, δέξομαι, ἐδεξάμην, δέδεγμαιreceive, admit.
λέγω, ἔλεξα, εἴλοχα, εἴλεγμαι, ἐλέγην and ἐλέχθηνcollect.
μέντοιadv., really, in truth; conj., yet, still, however, nevertheless.
οὐπώ-ποτε (οὔ-πω + ποτέ)adv., never yet.
πορείᾱ, ᾱς, ἡ (cf. πορεύομαι)journey.
συλ-λέγωcollect, gather, bring to gether.
τρέφω, θρέψω, ἔθρεψα, τέθραμμαι, ἐτράφην and ἐθρέφθηνnourish, support, maintain.
χρή, χρήσειimpers., it is needful, one must or ought.


1. Κῦρος δὲ τούτοις1 ἀπορῶν τε καὶ λῡπούμενος μετεπέμπετο τὸν Κλέαρχον.
2. δοκεῖ2 δέ μοι ἡμᾶς ἐρωτᾶν Κῦρον τί3 βούλεται ἡμῖν χρῆσθαι.
3. λέγομεν γὰρ ὅτι κακίους εἰσὶ περὶ ἡμᾶς ἢ ἡμεῖς περὶ ἐκείνους.
4. τοῦτο δ᾿ αὖ οὕτω συλλέγεται καὶ τρέφεται αὐτῷ τὸ στράτευμα.
5. οἱ δὲ4 ἔλεγον ὅτι οὐπώποθ᾿ οὗτος ὁ ποταμὸς διαβατὸς ἐγένετο πεζῇ εἰ μὴ τότε5.
6. ἀγορὰν δὲ παρέχετε6 τῷ στρατεύματι καὶ δέχεσθε τοὺς Ἕλληνας.
7. βουλευώμεθα, ἄνδρες στρατιῶται, εἰ7 κατὰ γῆν χρὴ πορεύεσθαι.
8. Ξενοφῶν μέντοι βούλεται μετ᾿ αὐτῶν τὴν πορείᾱν ποιεῖσθαι, νομίζων οὕτως ἀσφαλέστερον εἶναι.
9. τοῦτο δὴ δεῖ λέγειν, πῶς ἂν πορευοίμεθά τε ἀσφαλῶς καὶ εἰ μάχεσθαι δέοι καλῶς μαχοίμεθα.

NOTES.—1 Dative of cause (866).—2 Impersonal, it seems best.3 Cognate accusative (833) after χρῆσθαι, what use he wishes to make of us. For the dative ἡμῖν, cf. 309, 1. In its original form the question would be, τί βούλει ἡμῖν χρῆσθαι; —4 The article is used as a demonstrative, and they (815). —5 They said, οὐπώποθ᾿ οὗτος ὁ ποταμὸς διαβατὸς ἐγένετο εἰ μὴ νῦν. —6 Imperative. —7 εἰ, whether, introduces the indirect question. — 8 Use the subjunctive in a final clause. —9 Use the present.

564. Council of War. Speech of Cyrus.

Κῦρος δὲ συγκαλέσᾱς τοὺς στρατηγοὺς καὶ λοχᾱγοὺς τῶν Ἑλλήνων συνεβουλεύετό τε πῶς ἂν τὴν μάχην ποιοῖτο καὶ αὐτὸς παρῄνει θαρρύνων τοιάδε· “Ὦ ἄνδρες Ἕλληνες, οὐκ ἀνθρώπων ἀπορῶν βαρβάρων συμμάχους ὑμᾶς ἄγω, ἀλλὰ νομίζων ἀμείνους πολλῶν βαρβάρων ὑμᾶς εἶναι, διὰ τοῦτο προσέλαβον. ἔστε οὖν ἄνδρες ἄξιοι τῆς ἐλευθερίᾱς ἧς ἔχετε καὶ ἧς ὑμᾶς ἐγὼ εὐδαιμονίζω.”

NOTES.—2. ἂν ποιοῖτο: the person changes. cf. 390, 1.—3. παρῄνει . . . τοιάδε: exhorted and encouraged them as follows. —4. ἀνθρώπων βαρβάρων: verbs signifying want take the genitive (848). —ἀπορῶν: the participle expresses cause (495, 2). So νομίζων in the next line. —5. ἀμείνους: braver, accusative plural masculine of ἀμείνων, irregular comparative of ἀγαθός. — διὰ τοῦτο: resumes νομίζων, because I thought, etc., on this account. —6. ἔστε: imperative. —ἐλευθερίᾱς: the genitive depending on ἄξιος, worthy, is the genitive of value (853). —7. ἧς ἔχετε = ἣν ἔχετε, which you possess. The relative is assimilated to the case of its antecedent (828). —ἧς: genitive of cause (851) with εὐδαιμονίζω.