LESSON XLVIII: Reflexive, Reciprocal, and Possessive Pronouns.

Paradigms of the Reflexive Pronouns

443. The reflexive pronouns are ἐμαυτοῦ, of myself, σεαυτοῦ, of yourself, ἑαυτοῦ, ἑαυτῆς, ἑαυτοῦ, of himself, herself, itself.

ἐμαυτοῦ, of myself
Masculine Genitive Singularἐμαυτοῦ
Masculine Dative Singularἐμαυτῷ
Masculine Accusative Singularἐμαυτόν
Masculine Genitive Pluralἡμῶν αὐτῶν
Masculine Dative Pluralἡμῖν αὐτοῖς
Masculine Accusative Pluralἡμᾶς αὐτούς
ἐμαυτοῦ, of myself,
Feminine Genitive Singularἐμαυτῆς
Feminine Dative Singularἐμαυτῇ
Feminine Accusative Singularἐμαυτήν
Feminine Genitive Pluralἡμῶν αὐτῶν
Feminine Dative Pluralἡμῖν αὐταῖς
Feminine Accusative Pluralἡμᾶς αὐτάς
σεαυτοῦ, of yourself
Masculine Genitive Singularσεαυτοῦ
Masculine Dative Singularσεαυτῷ
Masculine Accusative Singularσεαυτόν
Masculine Genitive Pluralὑμῶν αὐτῶν
Masculine Dative Pluralὑμῖν αὐτοῖς
Masculine Accusative Pluralὑμᾶς αὐτούς
σεαυτοῦ, of yourself
Feminine Genitive Singularσεαυτῆς
Feminine Dative Singularσεαυτῇ
Feminine Accusative Singularσεαυτήν
Feminine Genitive Pluralὑμῶν αὐτῶν
Feminine Dative Pluralὑμῖν αὐταῖς
Feminine Accusative Pluralὑμᾶς αὐτάς
ἑαυτοῦ, ἑαυτῆς, ἑαυτοῦ, of himself, herself, itself.
Masculine Genitive Singularἑαυτοῦ
Masculine Dative Singularἑαυτῷ
Masculine Accusative Singularἑαυτόν
Masculine Genitive Pluralἑαυτῶν
Masculine Dative Pluralἑαυτοῖς
Masculine Accusative Pluralἑαυτούς
ἑαυτοῦ, ἑαυτῆς, ἑαυτοῦ, of himself, herself, itself.
Feminine Genitive Singularἑαυτῆς
Feminine Dative Singularἑαυτῇ
Feminine Accusative Singularἑαυτήν
Feminine Genitive Pluralἑαυτῶν
Feminine Dative Pluralἑαυταῖς
Feminine Accusative Pluralἑαυτάς
ἑαυτοῦ, ἑαυτῆς, ἑαυτοῦ, of himself, herself, itself.
Neuter Genitive Singularἑαυτοῦ
Neuter Dative Singularἑαυτῷ or
Neuter Accusative Singularἑαυτό
Neuter Genitive Pluralἑαυτῶν
Neuter Dative Pluralἑαυτοῖς or
Neuter Accusative Pluralἑαυτά

Notes on the Formation and Use of the Reflexive Pronoun

445. The reflexive pronouns are compounded of the stems of the personal pronouns and αὐτός. But in the plural the two pronouns are declined separately in the first and second persons.

446. The reflexive pronouns refer to the subject of the clause in which they stand. Sometimes in a dependent clause they refer to the subject of the leading verb,— i.e. they are indirect reflexives.

Thus, ἀφιππεύει ἐπὶ τὴν αὑτοῦ σκηνήν, he rides away to his own quarters; ἐκέλευσε Κῦρος τὸν Ἀρίστιππον ἀποπέμψαι πρὸς ἑαυτὸν τοὺς στρατιώτᾱς, Cyrus ordered Aristippus to send the soldiers to him.

Paradigm of the Reciprocal Pronoun

447. Learn the declension of the reciprocal pronoun ἀλλήλων, of one another.

ἀλλήλων, of one another
Masculine Dative and Genitive Dualἀλλήλοιν
Masculine Accusative Dualἀλλήλω
Masculine Genitive Pluralἀλλήλων
Masculine Dative Pluralἀλλήλοις
Masculine Accusative Pluralἀλλήλους
ἀλλήλων, of one another
Feminine Dative and Genitive Dualἀλλήλαιν
Feminine Accusative Dualἀλλήλᾱ
Feminine Genitive Pluralἀλλήλων
Feminine Dative Pluralἀλλήλαις
Feminine Accusative Pluralἀλλήλᾱς
ἀλλήλων, of one another
Neuter Dative and Genitive Dualἀλλήλοιν
Neuter Accusative Dualἀλλήλω
Neuter Genitive Pluralἀλλήλων
Neuter Dative Pluralἀλλήλοις
Neuter Accusative Pluralἄλληλα

Formation of the Possessive Pronoun

448. The possessive pronouns are ἐμός, my, σός, your, ἡμέτερος, our, ὑμέτερος, your. They are formed from the stems of the personal pronouns (Lesson 47), and are declined like adjectives in ος (Lesson 14).

Grammatical Notes

806. An adjective or participle, generally with the article, may be used as a noun. Thus, οἱ πολέμιοι, the enemy, τὸ κωλῦον, the hindrance, κακόν, evil.

846. The genitive follows verbs signifying to taste, smell, hear, perceive, comprehend, remember, forget, desire, care for, spare, neglect, wonder at, admire, despise. Thus, οὔποτε ἡδίονος οἴνου γέγευμαι, I have never tasted finer wine, θορύβου ἤκουσε, he heard a noise, τούτων μέμνησθε; do you remember this? τῶν στρατιωτῶν ἐπεμελεῖτο, he looked out for his men, μὴ ἀμελῶμεν ἡμῶν αὐτῶν, let us not neglect ourselves.

864. The dative is used with all words implying likeness or unlikeness, agreement or disagreement, union, or approach. This includes verbs, adjectives, adverbs, and nouns. Thus, ἡ πορείᾱ ὁμοίᾱ φυγῇ ἐγίγνετο, their march came to be like flight, Μαρσύᾱς Ἀπόλλωνι ἤρισε, Marsyas contended with Apollo, ἐπολέμει τοῖς Θρᾳξί, he carried on war with the Thracians, ἕψονται Κύρῳ, they will follow Cyrus, ἅμα τῇ ἡμέρᾳ, at daybreak, πλησιάζει τοῖς πολεμίοις, he approaches the enemy.


ἀλλήλων(cf. ἄλλος)reciprocal pronoun, of one another.
ἀμελέω, ἀμελήσω etc., be careless, neglect.
ἀφ-ιππεύω, ἀφ-ιππεύσω(cf. ἵππος)ride back, return on horseback.
ἑαυτοῦ, ῆς, οῦreflexive pronoun, of himself, herself, itself.
ἐμαυτοῦ, ῆςreflexive pronoun, of myself.
ἐμός, ή, όνpossessive pronoun, my, mine.
ἡμέτερος, ᾱ, ονour.
σεαυτοῦ, ῆςreflexive pronoun, of thyself, yourself.
σός, σή, σόνpossessive pronoun, thy, your.
σχολαίως(cf. σχολή)adv., slowly.
ὑμέτερος, ᾱ, ονpossessive pronoun, your.


1. ἐπὶ τὴν ἐμαυτοῦ σκηνὴν ἀφιππεύσω.
2. Κῦρος δὲ μετεπέμπετο ἐκεῖνον πρὸς ἑαυτόν.
3. τούτων τῶν χωρίων πάντων σατράπαι εἰσὶν οἱ τοῦ σοῦ1 ἀδελφοῦ φίλοι.
4. λέγει δὲ ὅτι οἱ Ἕλληνες νῑκῶσι τὸ καθ᾿ ἑαυτούς.
5. τὴν ὑμετέρᾱν ἀρετὴν ἐθαυμάσαμεν.
6. ἐβόων δὲ ἀλλήλοις σχολαίως ἕπεσθαι.
7. τοῦτον γὰρ ὁ ἐμὸς πατὴρ ἐκέλευσε πείθεσθαι ἐμοί.
8. ἢν δ᾿ ἡμεῖς νῑκήσωμεν, δεῖ τοὺς ἡμετέρους φίλους τούτων2 ἐγκρατεῖς εἶναι.
9. σὺ δὲ νῦν τὴν Κύρου χώρᾱν ἔχεις καὶ τὴν σεαυτοῦ ἀρχὴν σῴζεις.
10. οὐχ ὥρᾱ ἐστὶν ἡμῖν ἀμελεῖν ἡμῶν αὐτῶν,3 ἀλλὰ βουλεύεσθαι περὶ τούτων.

NOTES.—1 Nouns with a possessive pronoun take the article when they refer to definite individuals (809).—2 For the genitive, cf. 430, 4.—3 The genitive follows verbs signifying to neglect (846).—4 Use the dative (864).

452. Clearchus advances against Menon’s Troops.

ὁ δὲ Κλέαρχος καταφεύγει εἰς τὸ ἑαυτοῦ στράτευμα, καὶ εὐθὺς παραγγέλλει εἰς τὰ ὅπλα· καὶ τοὺς μὲν ὁπλίτᾱς αὐτοῦ ἐκέλευσε μένειν, τὰς ἀσπίδας πρὸς τὰ γόνατα ἔχοντας, αὐτὸς δὲ λαβὼν τοὺς Θρᾷκας οἳ (who) ἦσαν αὐτῷ ἐν τῷ στρατεύματι, ἤλαυνεν ἐπὶ τοὺς Μένωνος, ὥστ᾿ ἐκεῖνοι ἐφοβήθησαν καὶ αὐτὸς Μένων, καὶ τρέχουσιν ἐπὶ τὰ ὅπλα.

NOTES.—3. αὐτοῦ: adv., there, i.e. where they were.—τὰς ἀσπίδας . . . ἔχοντας: the left knee was slightly advanced, the shield set firmly in rest upon it, and the spear held in readiness for defence.—4. λαβών: literally having taken, second aorist active participle of λαμβάνω.