LESSON XLVII: Personal Pronouns.

Declension of the Personal Pronouns

433. The personal pronouns are ἐγώ, Ι, σύ, you, and οὗ (genitive), of him, of her, of it.

ἐγώ, Ι
Nominative Singularἐγώ
Genitive Singularἐνοῦ, μοῦ
Dative Singularἐμοί, μοί
Accusative Singularἐμέ, μέ
Nominative and Accusative Dualνώ
Genitive and Dative Dualνῷν
Nominative Pluralἡμεῖς
Genitive Pluralἡμῶν
Dative Pluralἡμῖν
Accusative Pluralἡμᾶς
σύ, you
Nominative Singularσύ
Genitive Singularσοῦ
Dative Singularσοί
Accusative Singularσέ
Nominative and Accusative Dualσφώ
Genitive and Dative Dualσφῷν
Nominative Pluralὑμεῖς
Genitive Pluralὑμῶν
Dative Pluralὑμῖν
Accusative Pluralὑμᾶς
οὗ (genitive), of him, of her, of it.
Genitive Singularοὑ
Dative Singularοἶ
Accusative Singular
Nominative Pluralσφεῖς
Genitive Pluralσφῶν
Dative Pluralσφίσι
Accusative Pluralσφᾶς

Notes on the Formation and Use of Personal Pronouns

435. The forms μοῦ, μοί, μέ; σοῦ, σοί, σέ; οὗ, οἷ, ἕ, are enclitic. But if the pronoun is emphatic, the enclitic forms of the pronoun retain their accent, and in the first person the longer forms ἐμοῦ, ἐμοί, ἐμέ, are then used. This generally happens also after prepositions.

436. The nominatives of the personal pronouns are seldom used, except for emphasis.

Thus, μὴ φεύγωμεν, let us not flee; σύ τε γὰρ Ἕλλην εἶ καὶ ἡμεῖς, for you are a Greek and so are we Greeks.

437. The pronoun of the third person, οὗ, οἶ, ἕ, etc., is generally an indirect reflexive in Attic prose, i.e. it is used in a dependent clause to refer to the subject of the leading verb.

Thus, φοβοῦνται μὴ οἱ βάρβαροι σφίσιν οὐχ ἕπωνται, they fear that the barbarians will not follow them.

438. To supply the place of a pronoun of the third person the oblique cases of αὐτός are used. Review Lesson 17.

Grammatical Notes

837. The accusative follows the adverbs of swearing νή and μά, by. An oath introduced by νή is affirmative; one introduced by μά is negative. Thus, νὴ Δία, yes, by Zeus! μὰ τοὺς θεοὺς οὐκ αὐτοὺς διώξω, by Heaven, I will not pursue them!

866. The dative is used to denote cause, manner, and means or instrument. Thus, φιλίᾳ καὶ εὐνοίᾳ ἐβοήθουν αὐτῷ, they helped him because of their friendship and good will, πορεύονται κύκλῳ, they advance in a circle, αὐτοὺς φοβοῦσι τῇ κραυγῇ, they frighten them by their uproar, diabaqinoysi πλοίοις, they cross in boats, βούλεται ἡμῖν χρῆσθαι, he wishes to use (i.e. serve himself by) us, γένει προσήκει βασιλεῖ, in family he is related to the king.


ἀξίη, ης, ἡaxe.
δαπανάω, δαπανήσω etc., spend, expend.
ἐγώ, ἐμοῦ or μοῦpers. pron., I; stronger form ἔγωγε, I for my part.
κατα-σκέπτομαι etc., view closely.
μάadv., by, used in negative oaths.
ξύλον, ου, τόwood, piece of wood; plur., wood, fuel.
οὗdat. οἷ, pers. pron., of himself.
οὔπω (οὐ + πώ, yet)adv., not yet.
προσ-ελαύνωride towards or on.
σκέπτομαι (σκεπ), σκέψομαι etc., mid. dep., view, spy out, search.
σύ, σοῦpers. pron., thou, you, Latin tū.
σχίζω (σχιδ), ἔσχισα, ἐσχίσθηνsplit.
ὥρᾶ, ᾶς ἡ, time, season, hour, proper time.


1. ἀλλ᾿ εἰς ὑμᾶς τοὺς δᾱρεικοὺς ἐδαπάνων.
2. ὁ αὐτὸς στόλος ἐστὶν ὑμῖν τε καὶ ἡμῖν.
3. παρὰ τῇ σκηνῇ σου ξύλα ἔσχιζεν ἀξίνῃ1 ὁ στρατιώτης.
4. νομίζω γὰρ ὑμᾶς ἐμοὶ εἶναι φίλους.
5. ἀλλὰ μὰ τοὺς θεοὺς2 οὐκ ἔγωγε αὐτοὺς διώξω.
6. ἐμοὶ οὖν οὔπω δοκεῖ ὥρᾱ εἶναι ἡμῖν τοῦτο σκέπτεσθαι.
7. Ξενοφῶν αὐτὸν κελεύει οἱ3 συμπέμπειν ἀπὸ τοῦ στόματος ἄνδρας.
8. ἐγὼ οὖν λέγω ὅτι σὲ δεῖ προσελαύνειν καὶ πάντα κατασκέπτεσθαι.
9. οἱ δὲ στρατηγοὶ αὐτὸν ἐρωτῶσι τί σφίσιν ἔσται ἐὰν νῖκήσωσι.
10. ἀλλ᾿ ἐπεὶ ὑμεῖς ἐμοὶ οὐκ ἐθέλετε πείθεσθαι οὐδὲ ἕπεσθαι, ἐγὼ σὺν ὑμῖν ἕψομαι.

NOTES.—1 Dative of instrument (866).—2 The accusative follows the adverb μά in a negative oath (837).—3 Observe that this is the dative, and cf. 437.—4 I.e. to me.5 cf. 437.

442. The Life of Clearchus is in Great Danger.

τῇ δὲ αὐτῇ ἡμέρᾳ Κλέαρχος ἧκεν εἰς τὴν ἀγορὰν τὴν παρὰ τῷ ποταμῷ. ἐπειδὴ δὲ αὐτὴν κατεσκέψατο, ἀφιππεύει πάλιν ἐπὶ τὴν ἑαυτοῦ σκηνὴν διὰ τοῦ Μένωνος στρατεύματος σὺν ὀλίγοις τοῖς περὶ αὐτόν. Κῦρος δὲ οὔπω ἧκεν, ἀλλ᾿ ἔτι προσήλαυνε· τῶν δὲ Μένωνος στρατιωτῶν ξύλα σχίζων τις Κλέαρχον διελαύνοντα πειρᾶται βάλλειν τῇ ἀξίνῃ· ἄλλος δὲ λίθῳ καὶ ἄλλος, εἶτα πάντες, καὶ κραυγὴ ἦν φοβερά.

NOTES.—3. ἑαυτοῦ: of himself, his own.—7. ἄλλος: sc. πειρᾶται βάλλειν.