LESSON XXXIV: Subjunctive Middle and Passive. Subjunctive after Verbs of Fearing.

Subjunctive Middle and Passive

331. Learn the conjugation of the subjunctive middle and passive of the present, aorist, and perfect of λύω and also the subjunctive aorist passive of λύω (λύωμαι, λύσωμαι, λελυμένος ὦ, and λυθῶ).

Present Middle Subjunctive of λύω
First Person Singularλύω-μαι
Second Person Singularλύῃ
Third Person Singularλύη-ται
Second Person Dualλύη-σθον
Third Person Dualλύη-σθον
First Person Pluralλῡώ-μεν
Second Person Pluralλύη-σθε
Third Person Pluralλύω-νται
Aorist Middle Subjunctive of λύω
First Person Singularλύσω-μαι
Second Person Singularλύσῃ
Third Person Singularλύση-ται
Second Person Dualλύση-σθον
Third Person Dualλύση-σθον
First Person Pluralλῡσώ-μεθα
Second Person Pluralλύση-σθε
Third Person Pluralλύσω-νται
Perfect Middle Subjunctive of λύω
First Person Singularλελυ-μένος ὦ
Second Person Singularλελυ-μένος ᾖς
Third Person Singularλελυ-μένος ᾗ
Second Person Dualλελυ-μένω ᾖτον
Third Person Dualλελυ-μένω ἦτον
First Person Pluralλελυ-μένοι ὦμεν
Second Person Pluralλελυ-μένοι ἦτε
Third Person Pluralλελυ-μένοι ὦσι
Aorist Passive Subjunctive of λύω
First Person Singularλυθῶ
Second Person Singularλυθῇς
Third Person Singularλυθῇ
Second Person Dualλυθῆ-τον
Third Person Dualλυθῆ-τον
First Person Pluralλυθῶ-μεν
Second Person Pluralλυθῆ-τε
Third Person Pluralλυθῶσι

332. The long vowel ω or η (315) is used also in the middle and passive in all the tenses. But in the aorist passive it is added to the tense stem (195), as λυθε-ω, λυθῶ (by contraction). The subjunctive uses the endings of the primary tenses (315), here the middle and passive endings (175), except in the aorist passive where the active endings occur (136).

The Subjunctive after Verbs of Fearing

333.-334. After verbs in a primary tense that denote fear, caution, or danger,, the subordinate clause, which expresses the thing feared and is the object of the leading verb takes the subjunctive. It is introduced by μή, that or lest, or if negative by μὴ οὐ, that not.

For example:

1. δέδοικα μὴ τὰς γεφύρᾱς λύωσι, I fear that they will destroy the bridges.

2. δεδοίκαμεν μὴ οὐ πιστοὶ ἦτε, we fear that you will not be faithful.


840. Verbs signifying to name, choose or appoint, make, think or regard, and the like, may take a predicate accusative besides the object accusative. Thus, πατέρα Ξενοφῶντα ἐκάλουν, they called Xenophon ‘father,’ φίλον ποιήσωμεν τοῦτον, let us make him our friend, τὸν σατράπην φίλον οὐ νομιεῖ, he will not regard the satrap as a friend.

849. The genitive may denote that from which anything is separated or distinguished. On this principle the genitive follows verbs denoting to remove, restrain, release, cease, fail, differ, give up, and the like. Thus, διέσχον ἀλλήλων ὡς τριάκοντα στάδια, they were about thirty furlongs distant from one another, ἐπέσχον τῆς πορείᾱς, they desisted from marching, πολέμου ἡδέως παύσεται, he will be glad to stop fighting.

854. The genitive may denote the time within which anything takes place. Thus, ὡρμᾶτο τῆς νυκτός, he set out in the night,ταῦτα τῆς ἡμέρᾱς ἐγένετο, this happened during the day.

866. The dative is used to denote cause, manner, and means or instrument. Thus, φιλίᾳ καὶ εὐνοίᾳ ἐβοήθουν αὐτῷ, they helped him because of their friendship and good will, πορεύονται κύκλῳ, they advance in a circle, αὐτοὺς φοβοῦσι τῇ κραυγῇ, they frighten them by their uproar, diabaqinoysi πλοίοις, they cross in boats, βούλεται ἡμῖν χρῆσθαι, he wishes to use (i.e. serve himself by) us, γένει προσήκει βασιλεῖ, in family he is related to the king.


δέδοικαa perf. with force of pres., aor. ἔδεισα (cf. δεινός), fear, of reasonable fear.
δια-σπάωdraw apart, separate.
ἐξ-απατάω, ἐξ-απατήσω etc., deceive grossly, mislead.
ἐπι-κίνδῡνος, ον (Cf. κίνδῡνος)dangerous, perilous.
κίνδῡνος, ου, ὁdanger, peril.
νομίζω (νομιδ), νομιῶ etc., regard, consider, think.
σπάω, ἔσπασα, ἔσπακα, ἔσπασμαι, ἐσπάσθηνdraw.
σχολή, ῆς, ἡ, leisure; σχολῇslowly.
φοβέω, φοβήσω, ἐφόβησα (cf. φόβος, φοβερός)frighten; commonly pass. dep., be frightened, fear, of unreasoning fear.


1. παυσώμεθα, ὦ φίλοι, ταύτης τῆς μάχης1.
2. σχολῇ2 πορεύονται ἵνα μὴ ἡ φάλαγξ διασπασθῇ.
3. Κῦρος τὸν σατράπην φίλον3 οὐ νομιεῖ,4 ἐὰν ἐπὶ τὴν ἀρχὴν πορεύηται ἐκεῖνος.
4. βοῶσι πάντες, ἵνα οἱ πολέμιοι ἐξαπατηθῶσι.
5. φοβοῦνται γὰρ μὴ οὐ ὁ σατράπης τοῦ πολέμου παύηται.
6. ἢν δὲ ἡ γέφῡρα λυθῇ, οἱ πολέμιοι ἀποχωρήσουσι.
7. ἡ δὲ χώρᾱ πολεμίᾱ ἐστίν· ἐπικίνδῡνον οὖν ἔσται5 ἐὰν πορεύησθε δι᾿ αὐτῆς.
8. δέδοικα μὴ σπάσηται τὸν ἀκῑνάκην.
9. κίνδῡνός ἐστι μὴ τῆς νυκτὸς οἱ πολέμιοι πορεύωνται ἐπ᾿ αὐτούς.

NOTES.—1 A genitive of separation (849).—2 A dative of manner (866). —3 A predicate accusative (840).—4 Future third singular.—5 Third singular of the future (ἔσομαι) of εἰμί (for ἔσεται).—6 Use the aorist.

338. Advance to the Euphrates.

μετὰ ταῦτα Κῦρος ἐξελαύνει παρασάγγᾱς εἴκοσιν ἐπὶ τὸν Χάλον ποταμόν· ἐνῆσαν δὲ ἐν τῷ ποταμῷ ἰχθύες, οὓς (which) οἱ Σύροι θεοὺς ἐνόμιζον καὶ ἀδικεῖν οὐκ εἴων. ἐσκήνουν δὲ οἱ στρατιῶται ἐν ταῖς Παρυσάτιδος κώμαις. ἐντεῦθεν ἐξελαύνει ἐπὶ τὰς πηγὰς τοῦ Δάρδατος ποταμοῦ. ἐνταῦθα ἦσαν βασίλεια καὶ παράδεισος καλός. Κῦρος δ᾿ αὐτὸν ἐκκόπτει καὶ τὰ βασίλεια κατακάει. ἐντεῦθεν ἐξελαύνει σταθμοὺς τρεῖς ἐπὶ τὸν Εὐφράτην ποταμόν.

NOTES.—2. ἰχθύες: fish, nominative plural of ἰχθύς, ύος, ὁ.—4. οὐκ εἵων: i. e. they permitted nobody.— Παρυσάτιδος: the mother of Cyrus. The income from these villages supplied her with “pin money.”—7. αὐτόν: the park.