LESSON XXXI: Deponent Verbs. Conditional Sentences.

Paradigm Review

296. Review the complete indicative of λύω and of the perfect and pluperfect indicative middle and passive of the mute verbs ἄγω and πείθω.

Paradigm Review - λύω

Present Active Indicative Of λύω
First Person Singularλύω
Second Person Singularλύεις
Third Person Singularλύει
Second Person Dualλύετον
Third Person Dualλύετον
First Person Pluralλύομεν
Second Person Pluralλύετε
Third Person Pluralλύουσι
Present Middle and Passive Indicative Of λύω
First Person Singularλύο-μαι
Second Person Singularλύει
Third Person Singularλύε-ται
Second Person Dualλύε-σθον
Third Person Dualλύε-σθον
First Person Pluralλῡό-μεθα
Second Person Pluralλύε-σθε
Third Person Pluralλύο-νται
Imperfect Active Indicative Of λύω
First Person Singularἔλῡον
Second Person Singularἔλῡες
Third Person Singularἔλῡε
Second Person Dualἐλύετον
Third Person Dualἐλῡέτην
First Person Pluralἐλύομεν
Second Person Pluralἐλύετε
Third Person Pluralἔλῡον
Imperfect Middle and Passive Indicative Of λύω
First Person Singularἐ-λῡό-μην
Second Person Singularἐ-λύου
Third Person Singularἐ-λύε-το
Second Person Dualἐ-λύε-σθον
Third Person Dualἐ-λῡέ-σθην
First Person Pluralἐ-λῡό-μεθα
Second Person Pluralἐ-λύε-σθε
Third Person Pluralἐ-λύο-ντο
Future Active Indicative of λύω
First Person Singularλύσω
Second Person Singularλύσεις
Third Person Singularλύσει
Second Person Dualλύσετον
Third Person Dualλύσετον
First Person Pluralλύσομεν
Second Person Pluralλύσετε
Third Person Pluralλύσουσι
Future Middle Indicative of λύω
First Person Singularλύσο-μαι
Second Person Singularλύσει
Third Person Singularλύσε-ται
Second Person Dualλύσε-σθον
Third Person Dualλύσε-σθον
First Person Pluralλῡσό-μεθα
Second Person Pluralλύσε-σθε
Third Person Pluralλύσο-νται
Future Passive Indicative Passive of λύω
First Person Singularλυθήσο-μαι
Second Person Singularλυθήσει
Third Person Singularλυθήσε-ται
Second Person Dualλυθήσε-σθον
Third Person Dualλυθήσε-σθον
First Person Pluralλυθησό-μεθα
Second Person Pluralλυθήσε-σθε
Third Person Pluralλυθήσον-ται
First Aorist Active Indicative of λύω
First Person Singularἕλῡσα
Second Person Singularἔλῡσας
Third Person Singularἔλῡσε
Second Person Dualἐλύσατον
Third Person Dualἐλῡσάτην
First Person Pluralἐλύσαμεν
Second Person Pluralἐλύσατε
Third Person Pluralἔλῡσαν
First Aorist Indicative Middle of λύω
First Person Singularἐ-λῡσά-μην
Second Person Singularἐ-λύσω
Third Person Singularἐ-λύσα-το
Second Person Dualἐ-λύσα-σθον
Third Person Dualἐ-λῡσά-σθην
First Person Pluralἐ-λῡσά-μεθα
Second Person Pluralἐ-λύσα-σθε
Third Person Pluralἐλύσα-ντο
First Aorist Indicative Passive of λύω
First Person Singularἐ-λύθη-ν
Second Person Singularἐ-λύθη-ς
Third Person Singularἐ-λύθη
Second Person Dualἐ-λύθη-τον
Third Person Dualἐ-λυθή-την
First Person Pluralἐ-λύθη-μεν
Second Person Pluralἐ-λύθη-τε
Third Person Pluralἐ-λύθη-σαν
First Perfect Active Indicative Of λύω
First Person Singularλέλυκα
Second Person Singularλέλυκας
Third Person Singularλέλυκε
Second Person Dualλελύκατον
Third Person Dualλελύκατον
First Person Pluralλελύκαμεν
Second Person Pluralλελύκατε
Third Person Pluralλελύκᾱσι
Perfect Middle and Passive Indicative of λύω
First Person Singularλέλυ-μαι
Second Person Singularλέλυ-σαι
Third Person Singularλέλυ-ται
Second Person Dualλέλυ-σθον
Third Person Dualλέλυ-σθον
First Person Pluralλελύ-μεθα
Second Person Pluralλέλυ-σθε
Third Person Pluralλέλυ-νται
Pluperfect Active Indicative Of λύω
First Person Singularἐλελύκη
Second Person Singularἐλελύκης
Third Person Singularἐλελύκει
Second Person Dualἐλελύκετον
Third Person Dualἐλελυκέτην
First Person Pluralἐλελύκεμεν
Second Person Pluralἐλελύκετε
Third Person Pluralἐλελύκεσαν
Pluperfect Middle and Passive Indicative of λύω
First Person Singularἐ-λελύ-μην
Second Person Singularἐ-λέλυ-σο
Third Person Singularἐ-λέλυ-το
Second Person Dualἐ-λέλυ-σθον
Third Person Dualἐ-λελύ-σθην
First Person Pluralἐ-λελύ-μεθα
Second Person Pluralἐ-λέλυ-σθε
Third Person Pluralἐ-λέλυ-ντο

Paradigm Review - Perfect and Pluperfect Indicative Middle and Passive of Mute Verbs

Perfect Indicative Middle and Passive of ἄγω
First Person Singular(ἠγ-μαι) ἦγ-μαι
Second Person Singular(ἠγ-σαι) ἦξαι
Third Person Singular(ἠγ-ται) ἦχ-ται
Second Person Dual(ἠγ-σθον) ἦχ-θον
Third Person Dual(ἠγ-σθον) ἦχ-θον
First Person Plural(ἠγ-μεθα) ἤγ-μεθα
Second Person Plural(ἠγ-σθε) ἦχ-θε
Third Person Plural(ἠγ-μενοι) ἠγ-μένοι εἰσί
Pluperfect Indicative Middle and Passive of ἄγω
First Person Singular(ἠγ-μην) ἤγ-μην
Second Person Singular(ἠγ-σο) ἦξο
Third Person Singular(ἠγ-το) ἦκ-το
Second Person Dual(ἠγ-σθον) ἦχ-θον
Third Person Dual(ἠγ-σθην) ἤχ-θην
First Person Plural(ἠγ-μεθα) ἤγ-μεθα
Second Person Plural(ἠγ-σθε) ἦχ-θε
Third Person Plural(ἠγ-μενοι) ἠγ-μένοι ἦσαν
Perfect Indicative Middle and Passive of πείθω
First Person Singular(πεπειθ-μαι) πέπεισ-μαι
Second Person Singular(πεπειθ-σαι) πέπει-σαι
Third Person Singular(πεπειθ-ται) πέπεισ-ται
Second Person Dual(πεπειθ-σθον) πέπει-σθον
Third Person Dual(πεπειθ-σθον) πέπει-σθον
First Person Plural(πεπειθ-μεθα) πεπείσ-μεθα
Second Person Plural(πεπειθ-σθε) πέπει-σθε
Third Person Plural(πεπειθ-μενοι) πεπεισ-μένοι εἰσί
Pluperfect Indicative Middle and Passive of πείθω
First Person Singular(ἐ-πεπειθ-μην) ἐ-πεπείσ-μην
Second Person Singular(ἐ-πεπειθ-σο) ἐ-πέπει-σο
Third Person Singular(ἐ-πεπειθ-το) ἐ-πέπεισ-το
Second Person Dual(ἐ-πεπειθ-σθον) ἐ-πέπει-σθον
Third Person Dual(ἐ-πεπειθ-σθην) ἐ-πεπεί-σθην
First Person Plural(ἐ-πεπειθ-μεθα) ἐ-πεπείσ-μεθα
Second Person Plural(ἐ-πεπειθ-σθε) ἐ-πέπει-σθε
Third Person Plural(ἐ-πεπειθ-μενοι) πεπεισ-μένοι ἦσαν

Deponent Verbs

297. Many verbs, called DEPONENT Verbs, have no active voice, but are used in the middle or in the middle and passive in an active sense.

298. In most deponent verbs the principal parts are the present, future, aorist, and perfect of the indicative middle. These are called middle deponents. Thus, ἡγέομαι, lead, conduct, ἡγήσομαι, ἡγησάμην, ἥγημαι.

299. A few deponent verbs have the aorist passive instead of the aorist middle. These are called passive deponents. Thus, βούλομαι, will, wish, βουλήσομαι, βεβούλημαι, ἐβουλήθην.

300. Some verbs which have active forms are nevertheless used almost exclusively in the middle, or middle and passive, and practically become deponents, as μεταπέμπομαι and συστρατεύομαι, used as middle deponents, and πορεύομαι, as a passive deponent. See 178.

Conditional Sentences

301. In conditional sentences the clause containing the condition is called the protasis, and that containing the conclusion is called the apodosis. The protasis is introduced by some form of εἰ, if.

302. The supposition contained in a protasis may be either particular or general. A particular supposition refers to a definite act supposed to occur at a definite time. A general supposition refers indefinitely to any act, which may be supposed to occur at any time.

303. The negative of the protasis is regularly μή, that of the apodosis is οὐ.

304. Neutral Conditions: Conditions That Imply Nothing About The Fulfillment of the Condition

1. εἰ πράττει τοῦτο, καλῶς ἔχει, if he is doing this, it is well.

2. εἰ ἔπρᾱξε τοῦτο, καλῶς ἔχει, if he did this, it is well.

The protasis here has the indicative; it states a particular supposition in the present or past, and implies nothing as to its fulfilment. The apodosis has its verb in the present indicative, but it may have any form of the verb demanded by the thought.

305. When the protasis simply states a present or past particular supposition, implying nothing as to the fulfilment of the condition, it has the indicative with εἰ. Any form of the verb may stand in the apodosis.

306. Contra-Factual Conditions: Conditions That Imply That The Condition Was NOT Fulfilled

1. εἰ ἔπρᾱξε τοῦτο, καλῶς ἂν ἔσχεν, if he had done this, it would have been well.

2. εἰ ἔπρᾱττε τοῦτο, καλῶς ἂν εἶχεν, if he were (now) doing this, it would be well; or, as in 306, 1, if he had done this, it would have been well.

The protasis in these examples has a secondary tense of the indicative; it states a supposition in the present or past, and implies that the condition is not, or was not fulfilled. The apodosis has a secondary tense of the indicative with ἄν.

307. 1. When the protasis states a present or past supposition, implying that the condition is not, or was not fulfilled, the secondary tenses of the indicative are used in both protasis and apodosis. The apodosis has the adverb ἄν. 2. The imperfect here refers to present time or to an act as going on or repeated in past time (cf. 306, 2), the aorist to a simple occurrence in past time.


847. The genitive follows verbs signifying to rule, lead, or direct. Thus, τῶν ὁπλῑτῶν ἄρχει, he commands the hoplites, Κλέαρχος τοῦ δεξιοῦ κέρως ἡγεῖται, Clearchus leads the right wing.

861. The person or thing for whose advantage or disadvantage anything is or is done is put in the dative. This dative is generally introduced in English by for. Thus, ἄλλο στράτευμα Κύρῳ συνελέγετο ἐν Χερρονήσῳ, another force was collected for Cyrus in the Chersonese, ἐμοὶ κακὸν βουλεύεις, you are plotting harm against me. Dative of Advantage or Disadvantage.

866. The dative is used to denote cause, manner, and means or instrument. Thus, φιλίᾳ καὶ εὐνοίᾳ ἐβοήθουν αὐτῷ, they helped him because of their friendship and good will, πορεύονται κύκλῳ, they advance in a circle, αὐτοὺς φοβοῦσι τῇ κραυγῇ, they frighten them by their uproar, diabaqinoysi πλοίοις, they cross in boats, βούλεται ἡμῖν χρῆσθαι, he wishes to use (i.e. serve himself by) us, γένει προσήκει βασιλεῖ, in family he is related to the king.


ἀπ-άγωlead away or back.
βούλομαι, βουλήσομαι, βεβούλημαι, ἐβουλήθηνwill, wish, desire.
ἡγέομαι, ἡγήσομαι, ἡγησάμην, ἥγημαι (cf. ἄγω)lead the way, lead, guide, conduct.
καλῶς (cf. καλός)adv., beautifully, bravely, finely, successfully, well; καλῶς ἔχει, it is well.
μήadv., not.
πειράομαι, πειράσομαι, πεπείρᾱμαι, ἐπειράθηνtry, attempt.
πράττω(πρᾱγ), πράξω, ἔπρᾱξα, πέπρᾱγα and πέπρᾱχα, πέπρᾱγμαι, ἐπράχθηνdo, act, accomplish.
χράομαι, χρήσομαι, ἐχρησάμην, κέχρημαι (cf. χρῆμα)use, make use of, employ.


1. Κῦρος τοῖς ἵπποις1 καλῶς ἐχρήσατο.
2. εἰ ταῦτα ἔπρᾱξαν, καλῶς ἔσχεν.
3. εἰ ταῦτα ἔπρᾱξαν, καλῶς ἂν ἔσχεν.
4. Ξενοφῶν ἐβούλετο μετὰ τῶν ἄλλων πορεύεσθαι.
5. τῷ στρατεύματι2 ἥγηται εἰς τὸ πεδίον.
6. ἐβουλήθη πέμπειν ἀπὸ τοῦ στόματος ὁπλίτᾱς.
7. τὸν δὲ στρατηγὸν ἐπειρᾶτο πείθειν.
8. εἰ μὴ βούλεται Κλέαρχος αὐτοὺς ἀπάγειν, ἄλλοι στρατηγοὶ ἡγήσονται.
9. ἐπορεύετο ἂν ἐπὶ τοὺς πολεμίους, εἰ στράτευμα εἶχεν.
10. ἀλλ᾿ εἰ βούλονται σὺν τοῖς ἄλλοις πορεύεσθαι εἰς τὴν Ἑλλάδα, ἥκειν κελεύει αὐτοὺς τῆς νυκτός.

NOTES.—1 χράομαι, use(serve oneself by) takes the dative of means (866). —2 Dative of advantage (861).—3 οὕτως ἔχει.

311. Arrival of the Fleet at Issus with Reinforcements.

ἐντεῦθεν ἐξελαύνει σταθμοὺς πέντε παρασάγγᾱς τριάκοντα εἰς Ἰσσούς. ἐνταῦθα μένουσιν ἡμέρᾱς τρεῖς· καὶ Κύρῳ παρῆσαν αἱ ἐκ Πελοποννήσου νῆες τριάκοντα καὶ πέντε καὶ ἐπ᾿ αὐταῖς ναύαρχος Πῡθαγόρᾱς Λακεδαιμόνιος. αἱ δὲ νῆες ὥρμουν παρὰ τὴν Κύρου σκηνήν. παρῆν δὲ καὶ Χειρίσοφος Λακεδαιμόνιος, μετάπεμπτος ὑπὸ Κύρου, ἑπτακοσίους ἔχων ὁπλίτᾱς· τούτων ἐστρατήγει παρὰ Κύρῳ.

NOTES.—3. νῆες: nominative plural of ναῦς. Cf. Latin nāuēs.— 4. αὐταῖς: refers to νῆες, which is feminine.—ναύαρχος: ναῦς + ἄρχω.— 5. ὥρμουν: see ὁρμέω.—6. μετάπεμπτος: verbal adjective from μεταπέμπομαι. —7. ἐστρατήγει: cf. στρατηγός. The genitive follows στρατηγέω (847).