LESSON XXVIII: Contract Verbs in αω in the Indicative.

Contract Verbs in αω in the Indicative

268. Two successive vowels, or a vowel and a diphthong, within a word, may be united by CONTRACTION in a single long vowel or a diphthong.

269. Verbs in αω, εω, and οω contract the final α, ε, ο of the verb stem with the following vowel or diphthong in the present and imperfect.

270. Learn the conjugation of the present and imperfect indicative active, middle, and passive of τῑμάω, honor.


Present Active Indicative of τῑμάω
First Person Singular(τῑμάω) τῑμῶ
Second Person Singular(τῑμάεις) τῑμᾷς
Third Person Singular(τῑμάει) τῑμᾷ
Second Person Dual(τῑμάετον) τῑμᾶτον
Third Person Dual(τῑμάετον) τῑμᾶτον
First Person Plural(τῑμάομεν) τῑμῶμεν
Second Person Plural(τῑμάετε) τῑμᾶτε
Third Person Plural(τῑμάουσι) τῑμῶσι
Present Middle and Passive Indicative of τῑμάω
First Person Singular(τῑμάομαι) τῑμῶμαι
Second Person Singular(τῑμάει) τῑμᾷ
Third Person Singular(τῑμάεται) τῑμᾶται
Second Person Dual(τῑμάεσθον) τῑμᾶσθον
Third Person Dual(τῑμάεσθον) τῑμᾶσθον
First Person Plural(τῑμαόμεθα) τῑμώμεθα
Second Person Plural(τῑμάεσθε) τῑμᾶσθε
Third Person Plural(τῑμάονται) τῑμῶνται
Imperfect Active Indicative of τῑμάω
First Person Singular(ἐτίμαον) ἐτίμων
Second Person Singular(ἐτίμαες) ἐτίμᾱς
Third Person Singular(ἐτίμαε) ἐτίμᾱ
Second Person Dual(ἐτῑμάετον) ἐτῑμᾶτον
Third Person Dual(ἐτῑμαέτην) ἐτῑμάτην
First Person Plural(ἐτῑμάομεν) ἐτῑμῶμεν
Second Person Plural(ἐτῑμάετε) ἐτῑμᾶτε
Third Person Plural(ἐτίμαον) ἐτίμων
Imperfect Middle and Passive Indicative of τῑμάω
First Person Singular(ἐτῑμαόμην) ἐτῑμώμην
Second Person Singular(ἐτῑμάου) ἐτῑμῶ
Third Person Singular(ἐτῑμάετο) ἐτῑμᾶτο
Second Person Dual(ἐτῑμάεσθον) ἐτῑμᾶσθον
Third Person Dual(ἐτῑμαέσθην) ἐτῑμάσθην
First Person Plural(ἐτῑμαόμεθα) ἐτῑμώμεθα
Second Person Plural(ἐτῑμάεσθε) ἐτῑμᾶσθε
Third Person Plural(ἐτῑμάοντο) ἐτῑμῶντο

Notes on the Formation of Contract Verbs in αω in the Indicative

271. Observe that

(1) α + ο, ου, or ω = ω; α + ε = ᾱ; α + ει = ᾳ.

272. A contracted syllable is accented if either of the original syllables had an accent. A contracted penult or antepenult is accented regularly (21, 22). A contracted final syllable is circumflexed; but if the original word was oxytone (25), the acute is retained.

273. A verb is called a vowel verb, a mute verb, or a liquid verb, according to the final letter of its stem. This may be a vowel, a mute, or a liquid (λ μ ν ρ).

274. Most stems ending in a short vowel lengthen this vowel in all tenses except the present and imperfect, α or ε to η, and ο to ω; but α after ε, ι, or ρ generally becomes ᾱ.

Thus, τῑμάω, τῑμήσω, ἐτίμησα, τετίμηκα, τετίμημαι, ἐτῑμήθην.


854. The genitive may denote the time within which anything takes place. Thus, ὡρμᾶτο τῆς νυκτός, he set out in the night,ταῦτα τῆς ἡμέρᾱς ἐγένετο, this happened during the day.

835. An accusative in certain expressions has the force of an adverb. Thus, τὰ πάντα νῑκῶσι, they are completely victorious, τί δεῖ αὐτοὺς λύειν τὴν γέφῡραν, why need they destroy the bridge?

812. An attributive adjective, or equivalent expression, which qualifies a noun with the article, commonly stands between the article and the noun. But the noun with the article may be followed by the adjective with the article repeated; here the first article is sometimes omitted. Thus, ἡ Ἑλληνικὴ φυλακή, or ἡ φυλακὴ ἡ Ἑλληνική, or φυλακὴ ἡ Ἑλληνική, the Greek garrison, ἡ εἰς τὸ πεδίον εἰσβολή, or ἡ εἰσβολή ἡ εἰς τὸ πεδίον, or εἰσβολὴ ἡ εἰς τὸ πεδίον, the pass leading into the plain.

866. The dative is used to denote cause, manner, and means or instrument. Thus, φιλίᾳ καὶ εὐνοίᾳ ἐβοήθουν αὐτῷ, they helped him because of their friendship and good will, πορεύονται κύκλῳ, they advance in a circle, αὐτοὺς φοβοῦσι τῇ κραυγῇ, they frighten them by their uproar, diabaqinoysi πλοίοις, they cross in boats, βούλεται ἡμῖν χρῆσθαι, he wishes to use (i.e. serve himself by) us, γένει προσήκει βασιλεῖ, in family he is related to the king.


βοάω, βοήσομαι, ἐβόησαshout, call out, cry out.
εἰconj., if, whether (a proclitic).
ἐρωτάω, ἐρωτήσω etc., ask a question, inquire.
νῑκάω, νῑκήσω, etc, (cf. νίκη)conquer, surpass, be victorious.
Ξενοφῶν, ῶντος, ὁXenophon, an Athenian, author of the Anabasis.
ὁρμάω, ὁρμήσω etc., set in motion, rush; mid., set out or forth, start.
πολλάκιςadv., often, frequently.
τῑμάω, τῑμήσω, etc. (cf. ἀ-τῑμάζω)value, esteem, honor.


1. ἐνῑκᾶτε τοὺς μετὰ Κύρου φύλακας.
2. νῑκώμεθα ὑπὸ τῶν Κιλίκων.
3. ὁ δὲ Ξενοφῶν αὐτὸν ἡρώτᾱ, “Τί (why) βοᾷς;”
4. Κῦρος δὲ ὡρμᾶτο ἀπὸ τῆς κώμης τῆς νυκτὸς1 μετὰ Ξενοφῶντος.
5. οἱ ἀμφὶ Κῦρον λέγουσιν ὅτι τὰ πάντα2 νῑκῶσι.
6. Κῦρος Κλέαρχον πολλάκις ἐτετῑμήκει· πάντας γὰρ τοὺς ἀγαθοὺς εἰς πόλεμον ἐτίμᾱ.
7. ἐρωτᾷ εἰ καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις στρατιώταις αἱ σπονδαί εἰσιν.
8. οὗτοι οἱ στρατιῶται ἐνίκων τοὺς Θρᾷκας.
9. ἐν τοῖς Πέρσαις οἱ γέροντες τῑμῶνται.
10. καὶ εὐθὺς τῷ Κλεάρχῳ ἐβόᾱ ἄγειν τὸ στράτευμα κατὰ μέσον τὸ3 τῶν πολεμίων.

NOTES.—1 Genitive of the time within which (854).—2 Adverbial accusative (835), are completely victorious.3 Note the position of the article (812). —4 Use the dative (866).—5 Use the imperfect.

278. The Speech of Clearchus, and its Effect.

“ἄνδρες (fellow) στρατιῶται, ἐμοὶ ξένος ἐστὶν ὁ Κῦρος καὶ πολλάκις ἤδη τετίμηκε. βούλομαι οὖν συμπορεύεσθαι αὐτῷ. ἐπεὶ δὲ ὑμεῖς ἐμοὶ οὐκ ἐθέλετε πείθεσθαι, ἐγὼ σὺν ὑμῖν ἕψομαι· ὑμεῖς γὰρ ἐμοί ἐστε καὶ φίλοι καὶ σύμμαχοι.”

ταῦτα ἔλεξεν. οἱ δὲ στρατιῶται οἵ τε αὐτοῦ ἐκείνον καὶ οἱ ἄλλοι ἐπαινοῦσι· παρὰ δὲ τῶν ἄλλων στρατηγῶν δισχίλιοι ἔχοντες τὰ ὅπλα καὶ τὰ σκευοφόρα στρατοπεδεύονται παρὰ Κλέαρχον.

NOTES.—1. ἐμοί: dative of the first personal pronoun ἐγώ, I (Latin ego). For the case, see 862.—3. ὑμεῖς: you (plural), genitive ὑμῶν, dative ὑμῖν, accusative ὑμᾶς.—4. ἕψομαι: future of ἕπομαι, follow—7. ἐπαινοῦσι: by contraction for ἐπαινέουσι, from ἐπαινέω, praise.