LESSON XXI: Indicative Passive.

Use of the Indicative Passive

192. In the passive (48) voice the subject is represented as acted on, as λύομαι, I am released, ἐλῡόμην, I was released, etc.

193. The present, imperfect, perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect have the same forms in the passive voice as in the middle that you learned in Lessons 19 and 20. The first aorist and first future are different.


194. Learn the conjugation of the first aorist and first future indicative passive of λύω (ἐλύθην and λυθήσομαι).

First Aorist Indicative Passive of λύω
First Person Singularἐ-λύθη-ν
Second Person Singularἐ-λύθη-ς
Third Person Singularἐ-λύθη
Second Person Dualἐ-λύθη-τον
Third Person Dualἐ-λυθή-την
First Person Pluralἐ-λύθη-μεν
Second Person Pluralἐ-λύθη-τε
Third Person Pluralἐ-λύθη-σαν
Future Indicative Passive of λύω
First Person Singularλυθήσο-μαι
Second Person Singularλυθήσει
Third Person Singularλυθήσε-ται
Second Person Dualλυθήσε-σθον
Third Person Dualλυθήσε-σθον
First Person Pluralλυθησό-μεθα
Second Person Pluralλυθήσε-σθε
Third Person Pluralλυθήσον-ται

Formation of the Aorist Passive

195. The first aorist passive uses the first passive stem, formed by adding the tense suffix θε (lengthened to θη in the indicative) to the verb stem, as λυθε (λυθη). As a secondary tense, it has augment in the indicative. It uses the active secondary endings (145).

196. Before the suffix θε a labial mute (π β φ) becomes (or remains) φ, as ἐ-πέμφ-θην (verb stem πεμπ); a palatal mute (κ γ χ) becomes (or remains) χ, as ἤχ-θην (verb stem αγ); a lingual mute (τ δ θ) becomes σ, as ἐπείσ-θην (verb stem πειθ), ἡρπάσ-θην (verb stem ἁρπαδ).

197. Some verbs form the aorist passive with the tense suffix ε (lengthened to η in the indicative) instead of θε (θη), as γράφω, write (verb stem γραφ), ἐ-γράφη-ν. These are called SECOND aorists passive.

198. The first future passive uses the first passive stem with σο/ε added to θη, as λυθησ ο/ε. It uses the middle primary endings (175).

Principal Parts of Verbs

199. The PRINCIPAL PARTS of a verb are the first person singular indicative of the following tenses: present active, future active, aorist active, perfect active, perfect middle, aorist passive, as λύω, λύσω, ἔλῡσα, λέλυκα, λέλυμαι, ἐλύθην.

200. The second aorist active (91), second perfect (115), and second aorist passive (197) may occur in place of the corresponding first tenses or in addition to them.

a. These second tenses will be fully considered later.

201. Not all verbs have all the principal parts, that is, some verbs are defective. In the following vocabularies, if parts are not given, it is to be understood that they do not occur in Attic prose.


202. The agent is usually expressed, in the passive construction, by ὑπό with the genitive, as οἱ ὁπλῖται ὑπὸ τοῦ στρατηγοῦ πεμφθήσονται, the heavy-armed men will be sent by the general.

203. The perfect and pluperfect passive may have the dative of the agent, as αἱ σπονδαὶ τοῖς πολεμίοις λέλυνται, the treaty has been broken by the enemy.

836. The accusative may denote extent of time or space. Thus, ἐνταῦθα μένει ἡμέρᾱς ἑπτά, he remained there a week, ἐπορεύοντο σταθμοὺς πέντε, they proceeded five days’ journey.


γράφω, γράψω, ἔγραψα, γέγραφα, γέγραμμαι, ἐγράφηνwrite.
δήintensive postpositive particle, now, indeed, accordingly, so, then.
εἴκοσιindeclinable, twenty.
ἐντεῦθενadv., thence, from this place.
ἑπτάindeclinable, seven.
ἥκω, ἥξωcome, be or have come.
παρασάγγης, ον, ὁparasang, a Persian road measure.
πιέζω (πιεδ), πιέσω, ἐπίεσα, ἐπιέσθηνpress hard.: pass., be hard pressed.
ὑπόprep.: with gen., under, from under, of agency, by, through; with dat., under, beneath; with acc., under, down under.


1. λυθησόμεθα ἐκ τούτων τῶν δεινῶν.1
2. ἐν δὲ τῇ στενῇ ὁδῷ ἐπιέσθημεν ὑπὸ τῶν πολεμίων.
3. λέγεται ἄγγελος ἥκειν παρὰ Δᾱρείου.
4. οὕτω δὴ μετεπέμφθησαν οἱ τοξόται.
5. ἐδιώκοντο διὰ τοῦ πεδίου παρασάγγᾱς ἑπτά.
6. ἐπιστολὴ ἐγράφη παρὰ τὸν Κλέαρχον.
7. ἐκ τῶν κωμῶν διηρπάσθη ὑπὸ τῶν βαρβάρων τὰ ὅπλα.
8. ἐπὶ τῷ δεξιῷ2 ἐτοξεύθησαν ὁπλῖται εἴκοσιν.3
9. ἐντεῦθεν πεμφθήσονται ὑπὸ Κύρου εἰς Φρυγίᾱν.

NOTES.—1 Used as a neuter noun.—2 on the right (wing).3 See 17.—4 Use ἄγω.—5 Put the Greek word for this phrase first. Cf. 205, 9.

207. The Palace and Park of Cyrus at Celaenae.

ἐνταῦθα Κῦρος μένει ἡμέρᾱς ἑπτά· καὶ ἧκε Μένων ὁ Θετταλὸς ὁπλίτᾱς ἔχων καὶ πελταστάς. ἐντεῦθεν ἐξελαύνει παρασάγγᾱς εἴκοσιν εἰς Κελαινάς.

ἐνταῦθα Κύρῳ βασίλεια ἦν καὶ παράδεισος. ἐν δὲ τούτῳ ἦν ἄγρια θηρία· ταῦτα ἐκεῖνος ἐθήρευεν ἀπὸ ἵππου. οὕτω γὰρ ἐγύμναζε τοὺς ἵππους. διὰ δὲ τοῦ παραδείσου ῥεῖ ὁ Μαίανδρος ποταμός· αἱ δὲ πηγαὶ αὐτοῦ εἰσιν ἐκ τῶν βασιλείων· ῥεῖ δὲ καὶ διὰ Κελαινῶν.

NOTES.—1. ἡμέρᾱς: accusative of extent of time (836).—7. ῥεῖ: by contraction for ῥέει, from ῥέω, flow.