LESSON XIX: Present, Imperfect, and Future Indicative Middle.

What Is The Middle Voice?

174. In the Middle (48) voice the subject is represented as acting:

  1. 1. On himself, as πορεύω, make go, middle, make oneself go, proceed; πείθω, persuade, middle, persuade oneself, trust, obey.
  2. 2. For himself, as ἀγοράζω, buy, middle,buy for oneself; μεταπέμπω, send after, middle, send for a person or thing to come to oneself, summon, send for; στρατεύω, make war, middle, take the field, march.
  3. 3. On something belonging to himself, as λύω, loose, middle, loose one’s own, ransom; ἄγω, bring, middle, bring one’s own.

Endings of the Middle Voice

175. The personal endings (136) in the indicative middle are:

Middle Endings for the Primary Tenses
Middle Endings for the Secondary Tenses

176. Learn the conjugation of the present, imperfect, and future indicative middle of λύω.

Present Indicative Middle of λύω
First Person Singularλύο-μαι
Second Person Singularλύει
Third Person Singularλύε-ται
Second Person Dualλύε-σθον
Third Person Dualλύε-σθον
First Person Pluralλῡό-μεθα
Second Person Pluralλύε-σθε
Third Person Pluralλύο-νται
Imperfect Indicative Middle of λύω
First Person Singularἐ-λῡό-μην
Second Person Singularἐ-λύου
Third Person Singularἐ-λύε-το
Second Person Dualἐ-λύε-σθον
Third Person Dualἐ-λῡέ-σθην
First Person Pluralἐ-λῡό-μεθα
Second Person Pluralἐ-λύε-σθε
Third Person Pluralἐ-λύο-ντο
Future Indicative Middle of λύω
First Person Singularλύσο-μαι
Second Person Singularλύσει
Third Person Singularλύσε-ται
Second Person Dualλύσε-σθον
Third Person Dualλύσε-σθον
First Person Pluralλῡσό-μεθα
Second Person Pluralλύσε-σθε
Third Person Pluralλύσο-νται

177. The present stem, found in the present and imperfect, is λῡο/ε (138 and 147), the future stem is λῡσ ο/ε (139). The forms λύει, ἐλύου, and λύσει, are the shortened forms of λῡε-σαι, ἐλῡε-σο and λῡσε-σαι.


ἀγοράζω (ἀγοραδ), ἀγοράσω, ἠγόρασα, ἠγόρακα (cf. ἀγορά)frequent the market-place, buy.
ἀλήθεια, ᾱς, ἡtruth.
βαρβαρικός, ή, όν (cf. βάρβαρος)barbarian; τὸ βαρβαρικόν, the Persian force of Cyrus.
ἕτοιμος, η, ον, or ος, ον (130)ready, prepared.
μετα-πέμπομαιsend for, summon.
πείθω, πείσω, ἔπεισα, πέπεικαpersuade; mid., obey.
πέρᾱνadv., across, beyond.
πιστεύω, πιστεύσω, ἐπίστευσα (cf. πιστός)put faith in, trust.
πορεύομαι, πορεύσομαι, πεπόρευμαιproceed.
συμ-βουλεύωplan with, advise; mid., consult with.
συ-στρατεύομαιserve in war with, take the field with.


1. συστρατεύσεται σὺν Κύρῳ· πιστεύει γὰρ αὐτῷ.1
2. οὐκ ἐπείθου1 τοῖς θεοῖς.
3. τῇ δ᾿ ἀληθείᾳ2 ἐπορεύοντο ἐπὶ τὸν ποταμόν.
4. Ἀρταξέρξης τὴν στρατιὰν ἄξεται.
5. τοὺς στρατιώτᾱς ἕτοιμοί ἐσμεν λύεσθαι.3
6. Κῦρος δὲ μεταπέμπεται τὸ βαρβαρικόν.
7. διὰ τοῦ πεδίου ἐπορευόμεθα εἰς κώμᾱς.
8. Κῦρος δὲ τοῖς στρατηγοῖς καὶ τοῖς λοχᾱγοῖς συμβουλεύεται.
9. πέρᾱν δὲ τοῦ Εὐφράτου4 ἦν κώμη· ἐκ ταύτης οἱ στρατιῶται ἠγοράζοντο τὰ ἐπιτήδεια.

NOTES.—1 The dative of the indirect object follows verbs signifying to trust and obey (860).—2 rē uērā, dative of manner (866). Abstract nouns in Greek often take the article.—3 to ransom, present infinitive middle, ending in εσθαι.—4 Adverbs of place may be followed by the genitive (856).

181. All his Troops muster at Sardis.

ἐπεὶ δ᾿ ἕτοιμος ἦν Κῦρος πορεύεσθαι ἄνω, λέγει μὲν ὅτι στρατεύεται ἐπὶ Πῑσίδᾱς· τῇ δ᾿ ἀληθείᾳ ἐπὶ τὸν ἀδελφὸν ἐπορεύετο. καὶ ἀθροίζει ὡς (as if) ἐπὶ τούτους τό τε βαρβαρικὸν καὶ τὸ Ἑλληνικόν. ἐνταῦθα καὶ κελεύει τόν τε Κλέαρχον ἥκειν καὶ τὸν Ἀρίστιππον ἀποπέμπειν εἰς Λῡδίᾱν τοὺς ἐν Θετταλίᾳ στρατιώτᾱς. ἐκέλευσε δὲ καὶ τοὺς ἄλλους ξένους συστρατεύεσθαι. οἱ δὲ ἐπείθοντο· ἐπίστευον γὰρ αὐτῷ.