LESSON XVIII: Present and Imperfect Indicative of εἰμί, be.

165. Learn the conjugation of the present and imperfect indicative of εἰμί, be,.

Present Indicative of εἰμί (be)
First Person Singularεἰμί
Second Person Singularεἶ
Third Person Singularἐστί
Second Person Dualἐστόν
Third Person Dualἐστόν
First Person Pluralἐσμέν
Second Person Pluralἐστέ
Third Person Pluralεἰσί
Imperfect Indicative of εἰμί (be)
First Person Singularἦ or ἦν
Second Person Singularἦσθα
Third Person Singularἦν
Second Person Dualἦστον or ἦτον
Third Person Dualἤστην or ἤτην
First Person Pluralἦμεν
Second Person Pluralἦστε or ἦτε
Third Person Pluralἦσαν

Notes on the formation and use of the verb εἰμί

166. All the forms of the present indicative of εἰμί are enclitic except εἶ. The third singular ἐστί takes v-movable (17) like words in σι. Further, ἐστί becomes ἔστι:

1. At the beginning of a sentence, as ἔστι δὲ Κύρῳ βασίλεια, Cyrus has a palace.

2. When it signifies existence or possibility, as ἐν τοῖς βαρβάροις ἔστιν οὕτω λέγειν, it is possible to speak thus among the barbarians.

3. When it follows οὐκ, εἰ, ὡς, καί, τοῦτο, and some other words, as οὐκ ἔστι Κύρῳ πλοῖα, Cyrus has no boats.

Proclitics and Enclitics

167. Proclitics (26) have no effect on the accent of the following word. The proclitics are the forms ὁ, ἡ, οἰ, αἱ of the article; the prepositions εἰς, into, ἐξ (ἐκ), out of, ἐν, in; the conjunctions εἰ, if, and ὡς, as, that; and the negative οὐ (οὐκ, οὐχ), not.

168. An enclitic (27) generally loses its own accent, but in the following cases it retains it:

1. When a dissyllabic enclitic follows a word with the acute on the penult, as φίλοι ἐστέ, you are friends.

2. When the preceding syllable is elided (16), as ταῦτ᾿ ἐστὶ κακά, this is bad.

169. The word before an enclitic always retains its own accent, and never changes an acute to the grave (25). Further:

1. If it has the acute on the antepenult or circumflex on the penult, it receives from the enclitic an acute on its last syllable as a second accent, as ἄξιόν ἐστι, it is right, ἀγαθὸς οὗτός ἐστι, he is brave.

2. If it has the acute on the penult or the acute or circumflex on the ultima, it receives no additional accent, as ξένοι ἐσμέν (168, 1), we are friends, κακοί ἐστε, you are cowards, τῶν στρατιωτῶν τινες, some of the soldiers.

3. If it is a proclitic or an enclitic, it receives an acute, as εἴ τις, if anybody; εἴ τίς φησι (enclitic) ταῦτα, if anybody says this.


βασίλειος, ον (130)royal; neut. plur. βασίλεια as noun, palace.
εἰμίimperf. ἦν, fut. ἔσομαι, be.
ἐνταῦθαadv., there, here, in this place.
conj., than, Lat. quam.
Μαίανδρος, ου, ὁthe Maeander, a winding river in Asia Minor.
μᾶλλονadv., more, rather.
μύριοι, αι, α10,000.
παράδεισος, ου, ὁpark.
πάροδος, ου, ἡway by or along, passage, pass.
πηγή, ῆς, ἡfountain, head, spring, source.


1. εἶ ἐπὶ (in the power of) τῷ ἀδελφῷ.
2. οὐκ ἄξιόν ἐστι τὰς σπονδὰς λύειν.
3. ἐνταῦθα γάρ ἐστιν ἡ πάροδος στενή.
4. Κύρῳ μᾶλλον φίλοι ἐστὲ ἢ τῷ ἀδελφῷ.
5. ἦμεν ἐν τῷ παραδείσῳ.
6. Κλεάρχῳ δὲ μύριοι δᾱρεικοί εἰσι.
7. ξένοι ἐσμέν, ὦ Κῦρε, τῷ σατράπῃ.
8. αἱ δὲ πηγαὶ τοῦ Μαιάνδρου ποταμοῦ εἰσιν ἐκ τῶν βασιλείων.
9. Κύρῳ ἐστέ, ὦ στρατιῶται, καὶ φίλοι καὶ σύμμαχοι.
10. ἔστι δὲ Κύρῳ καὶ βασίλεια καὶ χωρίον ἰσχῡρὸν ἐπὶ ταῖς τοῦ ποταμοῦ πηγαῖς.

173. He continues to collect Forces.

ἄλλους δὲ στρατιώτᾱς Κύρῳ ἤθροιζε Κλέαρχος ὁ Λακεδαιμόνιος ἐν Χερρονήσῳ· τούτῳ γὰρ ὡς as φίλῳ παρέσχε μῡρίους δᾱρεικούς. Ἀρίστιππος δὲ ὁ Θετταλὸς ξένος ἦν αὐτῷ, καὶ ἐν Θετταλίᾳ στρατιὰν ἤθροιζεν. [5] ἐκέλευσε δὲ καὶ Πρόξενον καὶ Σοφαίνετον μετὰ τῶν ἄλλων στρατηγῶν στρατεύειν· καὶ ἐποίουν οὕτως οὗτοι.

NOTES.—3. παρέσχε: second aorist (91) of παρ-έχω, hold beside or near, furnish, give. The preposition παρά signifies beside. The accent of a compound verb cannot go further back than the augment.—6. ἐποίουν: by contraction for ἐποίεον, third plural imperfect indicative active of ποιέω, do.