LESSON XV: Analysis of the Primary Tenses of the Indicative Active.

Stems, Suffixes and Endings

135. To the verb stem (54) different TENSE SUFFIXES are added to form the TENSE STEMS of the verb, as λύω, stem λῡ, present tense suffix ο or ε (for convenience written ο/ε), present tense stem λῡο or λῡε (λῡ ο/ε.

136. To form the complete tenses, PERSONAL ENDINGS are added to the different tense stems. These distinguish the different persons of the verb. The personal endings of the primary (50) tenses in the active voice are :


137. Review the conjugation of the present, future, and first perfect indicative active of λύω.

First Person Singularλύω
Second Person Singularλύεις
Third Person Singularλύει
Second Person Dualλύε-τον
Third Person Dualλύε-τον
First Person Pluralλύο-μεν
Second Person Pluralλύε-τε
Third Person Pluralλύουσι
First Person Singularἔ-λῡο-ν
Second Person Singularἔ-λῡο-ν
Third Person Singularἔ-λῡε
Second Person Dualἐ-λύε-τον
Third Person Dualἐ-λῡέ-την
First Person Pluralἐ-λύο-μεν
Second Person Pluralἐ-λύε-τε
Third Person Pluralἔ-λῡο-ν
First Person Singularλέλυκα
Second Person Singularλέλυκα-ς
Third Person Singularλέλυκε
Second Person Dualλελύκα-τον
Third Person Dualλελύκα-τον
First Person Pluralλελύκα-μεν
Second Person Pluralλελύκα-τε
Third Person Pluralλελύκᾱσι

The Stems of λύω

138. The present stem of λύω is λῡ ο/ε (135); λῡο occurs before μ or ν in the endings, elsewhere λῡε. In the singular, the terminations ω, εις, ει, are difficult to analyze, but in the dual and plural, the tense stem and personal endings are easily distinguished. λύουσι is for λῡο-νσι.

139. The future stem of λύω is λύσ ο/ε, formed by adding the tense suffix σο or σε (σ ο/ε) to the verb stem.

140. The first perfect stem of λύω is λε-λυκα, formed by reduplicating the verb-stem λυ and adding the tense suffix κα. The endings μι and σι are dropped, and in the third singular final α is changed to ε. λελύκᾱσι is for λελυκα-νσι.


ἄγγελος, ου, ὁmessenger, scout.
ἀντίprep. with gen., instead of.
ἀπόprep. with gen., off from, from.
ἀτῑμάζω (ἀτιμαδ), ἀτῑάσω, ἠτίμασα, ἠτίμακαdishonor, disgrace.
δίκη, ης, ἡjustice, punishment.
ἐπείconj., when, since.
ἐπιστολή, ῆς, ἡletter.
θηρεύω, θηρεύσω, ἐθήρευσα, τεθήρευκα (cf. θηρίον)hunt wild beasts, hunt, catch.
ὄλεθρος, ου, ὁdestruction, loss.
οὕτως(before a vowel), οὕτω (before a consonant), adv., thus, so.
πάλινadv., back, again.
φίλος, ου, ὁ (cf. φίλιος)friend.


1. ὁπλίτᾱς ἤχᾱσιν ἀντὶ τοξοτῶν.
2. τοῖς συμμάχοις οὕτως ἐπιβουλεύετε.
3. Κῦρον δὲ ἠτίμακε.
4. θηρία ἀπὸ ἵππου (on horseback) τεθήρευκα.
5. τὰς ἐπιστολὰς πέμψομεν τοῖς φίλοις;
6. Κλέαρχος, ὦ στρατιῶται, ἐπεὶ τοὺς ὅρκους λέλυκε, τὴν δίκην ἔχει.
7. τὴν δὲ χώρᾱν ἡρπάκαμεν διὰ τὸν ὄλεθρον τῶν στρατιωτῶν.
8. τὸν ἄγγελον πέμπει πάλιν ἐπὶ τὸ ἰσχῡρὸν χωρίον.

144. Cyrus escapes with his Life, and plots against his Brother.

οὕτω δὴ (then) ἠτίμαζε τὸν ἀδελφὸν Ἀρταξέρξης. ἡ δὲ μήτηρ λύει Κῦρον καὶ ἀποπέμπει πάλιν ἐπὶ τὴν ἀρχήν. Κῦρος δὲ ἐπεὶ ἧκεν εἰς τὴν Λῡδίᾱν, βουλεύει ὅπως βασιλεύσει (how he shall be king, to be king) ἀντὶ τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ· πολέμιος γὰρ αὐτῷ ἦν. οἱ δ᾿ ἐν τῇ ἀρχῇ βάρβαροι Κύρῳ φίλιοι καὶ πιστοὶ ἦσαν.