LESSON XII: Perfect and Pluperfect Indicative Active

What are the Perfect and the Pluperfect?

The perfect tense is used to describe completed action in the present time (i.e. I have studied Greek). The pluperfect tense is used to describe completed action in the past time (i.e. I had studied Greek).

Reduplication in the Perfect and the Pluperfect

105. The perfect and pluperfect, in all the moods, have a REDUPLICATION, which is the mark of completed action.

106. Verbs beginning with a single consonant (except ρ) are reduplicated in the perfect by prefixing that consonant followed by ε, as λύω, λέ-λυκα. A rough mute (7) is changed to the cognate (8) smooth, as θύω, sacrifice, τέ-θυκα.

107. In verbs beginning with two consonants (except a mute and a liquid), with a double consonant (ξ ψ ζ), or with ρ, the reduplication is represented by a simple ε, as στρατεύω, make an expedition, ἐστράτευκα.

108. In verbs beginning with a short vowel or diphthong the reduplication has the form of the temporal augment (67, 2), as ἁρπάζω, ἥρπακα.

109. When the reduplicated perfect begins with a consonant, the pluperfect prefixes the syllabic augment ε to the reduplication, as λέλυκα, ἐλελύκη. In other cases the pluperfect generally keeps the reduplication of the perfect without change, as ἥρπακα, ἡρπάκη.


First Perfect Indicative Of λύω
First Person SingularλέλυκαI have loosed
Second Person Singularλέλυκαςyou have loosed
Third Person Singularλέλυκεhe has loosed
Second Person Dualλελύκατον
Third Person Dualλελύκατον
First Person Pluralλελύκαμενwe have loosed
Second Person Pluralλελύκατεyou have loosed
Third Person Pluralλελύκᾱσιthey have loosed
First Pluperfect Indicative Of λύω
First Person SingularἐλελύκηI had loosed
Second Person Singularἐλελύκηςyou had loosed
Third Person Singularἐλελύκειhe had loosed
Second Person Dualἐλελύκετον
Third Person Dualἐλελυκέτην
First Person Pluralἐλελύκεμενwe had loosed
Second Person Pluralἐλελύκετεyou had loosed
Third Person Pluralἐλελύκεσανthey had loosed
First Person Singularἥρπακα
Second Person Singularἥρπακας
Third Person Singularἥρπακε
Second Person Dualἡρπάκατον
Third Person Dualἡρπάκατον
First Person Pluralἡρπάκεμεν
Second Person Pluralἡρπάκατε
Third Person Pluralἡρπάκᾱσι
First Person Singularἡρπάκη
Second Person Singularἡρπάκης
Third Person Singularἡρπάκει
Second Person Dualἡρπάκετον
Third Person Dualἡρπακέτην
First Person Pluralἡρπάκεμεν
Second Person Pluralἡρπάκετε
Third Person Pluralἡρπάκεσαν

Endings for the Perfect and the Pluperfect

111. The first perfect adds κα, the first pluperfect κη, to the reduplicated theme.

112. In vowel verbs the stem may not be affected by adding κα and κη, as βουλεύω, βεβούλευ-κα, ἐβεβουλεύ-κη, κελεύω, κεκέλευ-κα, ἐκεκελεύ-κη.

a. ἔχω has the irregular forms ἔσχηκα, ἐσχήκη.

113. Verbs whose stem ends in a τ-mute (τ δ θ) drop the mute before κα and κη, as ἀθροίζω (ἀθροιδ), ἤθροι-κα, ἠθροί-κη.

The Second Perfect and Pluperfect

114. Some verbs whose stem ends in a π-mute (π β φ) or a κ-mute (κ γ χ) add α and η instead of κα and κη, and aspirate the final letter of the stem, changing π and β to φ, and κ and γ to χ, as

πέμπω, πέπομφ-α (with change of ε of the stem to ο), ἐπεπόμφ-η. διώκω, δεδίωχ-α, ἐδεδιώχ-η. ἄγω, ἦχ-α, ἤχ-η.

115. The perfects and pluperfects just described (114) are called SECOND perfects and pluperfects.


δι-αρπάζω, δι-αρπάσω, δι-ήρπασα, διήρπακαplunder completely, sack.
θύω, θύσω, ἔθῡσα, τέθυκαsacrifice.
στρατεύω, στρατεύσω, ἐστράτευσα, ἐστράτευκα (cf. στρατιά, στρατιώτης)make an expedition.
δᾱρεικός, οῦ, ὁdaric (a gold coin).
θεός, οῦ, ὁ, ἡgod, goddess.
Κλέαρχος, ου, ὁClearchus.
ὅρκος, ου, ὁoath.
φόβος, ου (cf. φοβερός), ὁfear.
γάρconj., for (a postpositive).
διάprep.: with gen., through; with acc., on account of.
πρόςprep.: with gen., over against; with dat., at; with acc., to, against, towards.


1. ἐσχήκατε.
2. ἐλελύκει.
3. ἐστρατεύκᾱσι.
4. τέθυκε.
5. ἐσχήκη.
6. ἡρπάκαμεν.
7. διηρπάκεσαν.
8. πέπομφας.
9. ἐκεκελεύκεσαν.
10. ἐπιβεβουλεύκᾱσι.
11. τοὺς πολεμίους δεδιώχαμεν διὰ τῶν κωμῶν εἰς τὴν θάλατταν.
12. καὶ τὰς ἁμάξᾱς οἱ βάρβαροι διηρπάκεσαν.
13. τριᾱκοσίους δᾱρεικοὺς ἐπεπόμφεμεν τοῖς ὁπλίταις.
14. Κλέαρχος δὲ ἐπεβεβουλεύκει τοῖς Πέρσαις.
15. οἱ στρατιῶται τὸν ἄνθρωπον ἤχεσαν πρὸς Κῦρον.
16. οὐκ ἐκεκελεύκει ὁ Κλέαρχος τοὺς στρατιώτᾱς θύειν.
17. ἐπὶ τὴν τῶν πολεμίων χώρᾱν ἐστρατεύκατε.
18. λελύκᾱσι τοὺς (their) ὅρκους οἱ στρατηγοί· οὐ γὰρ τεθύκᾱσι τοῖς θεοῖς.
19. ἤθροικας, ὦ Κῦρε, ἐπὶ τοὺς βαρβάρους τοὺς πελταστὰς καὶ τοὺς τοξότᾱς.
20. οἱ δὲ στρατιῶται τὰς ἁμάξᾱς ἐλελύκεσαν διὰ τὸν (their) τῶν πολεμίων φόβον.